Male Infertility Treatment

What is male infertility?

Reproduction is a trouble-free and natural experience for most couples. However, for some couples it becomes very difficult to conceive.

A man’s productiveness generally relies on the quantity and quality of the sperm. If the number of sperms ejaculated is low or of poor quality, it will be difficult, and sometimes impossible, for him to cause a pregnancy. Male barrenness is diagnosed, after testing both partners.

How common is male infertility?

Infertility is a common problem. For about one in five infertile couples the problem lies solely in the male partner.

It is estimated that one in 20 men has some kind of fertility problem with low numbers of sperm in his ejaculate. However, only about one in every 100 men has no sperm in his ejaculate.

What are the symptoms of male infertility?

In maximum cases, there are no obvious signs of infertility. Intercourse, erections and ejaculation usually happens without any trouble. The quantity and appearance of the ejaculated semen appears normal to the naked eye.

So to find out if a man is infertile, medical tests are needed.

What causes male infertility?

Male infertility is usually caused by problems that affect either sperm production or sperm transport. Through medical testing, the doctor may be able to find the root of the problem.

About two-thirds of infertile men have a difficulty with sperm making in the testes. Either low numbers of sperm are made and/or the sperm that are made do not work properly.

Sperm transport problems are found in about one in every five infertile men, including men who have had a vasectomy but now wish to have more children. Blockages or obstructions in the tubes leading sperm away from the testes to the penis can cause a complete lack of sperm in the ejaculated semen.

Other less common causes of infertility include: sexual problems that affect whether semen is able to enter the woman’s vagina for fertilization, low levels of hormones made in the pituitary gland that act on the testes and sperm antibodies. In most men, sperm antibodies will not affect the chance of a pregnancy but in some men sperm antibodies reduce fertility.

Please feel free to contact us with any questions you may have, all types of communication are most welcome!

Known causes of male infertility

Sperm Production Problems

Male infertility is usually caused by problems that affect either sperm production or sperm transport.

  • Chromosomal or genetic causes
  • Un-descended testes (failure of the testes to descend at birth)
  • Infections
  • Torsion (twisting of the testis in scrotum)
  • Varicocele (varicose veins of the testes)
  • Medicines and chemicals
  • Radiation damage
  • Unknown cause

Blockage of Sperm Transport

Some men have no sperm in their semen because the sperm transportis blocked because the vas deferens did not develop at all or in part.

  • Infections
  • Prostate-related problems
  • Absence of vas deferens
  • Vasectomy

Sexual problems (Erection and ejaculation problems)

A look at sexual problems in men, including erectile dysfunction and ejaculation disorders.

  • Retrograde and premature ejaculation
  • Failure of ejaculation
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Infrequent intercourse
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Prostate surgery
  • Damage to nerves
  • Some medicines

Hormonal problems

Signs of hormonal imbalance in women are a very real quality of life issue. All women need to be aware these signs of hormone imbalance.

  • Pituitary tumours
  • Congenital lack of LH/FSH (pituitary problem from birth)
  • Anabolic (androgenic) steroid abuse

Sperm Antibodies

Once sperm and blood come in contact, whether in the male or female, specific antibodies are produced against them by specialized blood cells call T- and B-lymphocytes. The three main types of sperm antibodies produced are Immunoglobulin G (IgG), Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM)

  • Vasectomy
  • Injury or infection in the epididymis
  • Unknown cause
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The male reproductive system

The male reproductive system is made up of the testes, a system of ducts (tubes) and other glands that open into the ducts. The brain plays an important part in the control of the male reproductive system.

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Parts of the male reproductive system

 

The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus, located at the base of the brain, control the production of male hormones and sperm. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) are the two important messenger hormones made by the pituitary gland that act on the testes.

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Two messenger hormones act on the testes

The testes (testis: singular) are a pair of egg-shaped glands that sit in the scrotum next to the base of the penis on the outside of the body. The testes make sperm and the male sex hormone testosterone. It takes about 70 days for sperm to become mature and able to fertilize an egg.

When released from the testes, the sperm spend two to 10 days passing through the epididymis where they gain the vital ability to swim strongly (become ‘motile’), and to attach to and penetrate the egg.

At orgasm, waves of muscle contractions transport the sperm, with a small amount of fluid, from the testes through the vas deferens. The seminal vesicles and prostate contribute extra fluid to protect the sperm. This mixture of sperm and fluid (the semen) travels along the urethra to the tip of the penis where it is ejaculated (released).